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Literature

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Agriculture, Agronomics and Rural Investments

Buol, Stanley W. 2009: Soils and Agriculture in Central West and North Brazil, in: Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.), v.66, n.5, p.697-707

Short Summary: The publication, written by renowned agronomist and soil expert Stanley Buol, highlights the agricultural expansion in Brazil to previously non-fertile or highly acid areas by applying new methods of soil improvements. He states that ” naturally acid soils with high contents of aluminum and iron oxides and low CEC values and organic matter contents long considered insurmountable obstacles to crop production in tropical latitudes could be extremely productive.” He concludes that Brazil “has the potential to lead the world in its quest to provide food for growing human populations”.


Cezar de Souza, Climaco 2015: Gaseificadores de biomassa: um novo futuro energético sustentável e justo, do Brasil para o mundo

Short Summary: Thehttp://www.agrolink.com.br/colunistas/ColunaDetalhe.aspx?CodColuna=6944 author advocates a new energetic approach in Brazil, focussing on the use of biomass, which is abundant in Brazil, in technologically advanced gasification systems.


Cezar de Souza, Climaco 2015: Estudo Comparativo de Geração de Energia Elétrica por Cavacos de Madeira

Short Summary: A rather compact and comparative study of Energy Generation based on wood and splints, with several continuative links to further literature.


Francisco, Eros/Gimenez, Leandro 2015: Brazilian Precision Agriculture in Perspective, published by the IPNI (International Plant Nutrition Institute)

Short Summary: The Presentation reflects a lecture held by Dr. Eros Francisco and Dr. Leandro Gimenez in 2015, highlighting the enormous potential of the Brazilian agricultural sector. Their main statement is that expansive and intensive agriculture can be performed without causing environmental damages, like expanding into the Amazon area or natural reserves.


Jank, Liana et altera: The value of improved pastures to Brazilian beef production, in: Crop and Pasture Science, p. 1132-1137 · January 2014

Short Summary (Abstract): Brazil is an agricultural country, with 190Mha of pastures sustaining 209million cattle. Fewer than 10% of the cattle are fattened in feedlots, whereas cattle reared on pastures have a competitive advantage for export, eliminating the risks presented by the mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and considerations related to animal welfare. Brazil has been the world’s largest exporter of beef since 2004 and has the largest commercial herd in the world. In 2011, 16.5% of its production was exported, and the livestock sector contributed 30.4% of the gross national product from agribusiness and 6.73% of the total GNP. Many forage breeding programs, mainly at Embrapa, have contributed to the development of improved pastures, and cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens, B. humidicola and Panicum maximum are the main pastures used in the country. All have apomictic reproduction, which means there are few cultivars occupying very large, continuous areas, thus suggesting a risk to the productive system. Such is the case of B. brizantha cv. Marandu, which occupies around 50Mha. The Brazilian tropical forage seed industry is also important, and Brazil is the main seed exporter, supplying all Latin American countries. Due to pasture degradation, around 8Mha is renovated or recovered each year. Forages are also used and planted each year in integrated crop-livestock and integrated crop-livestock-forest systems. Nowadays, these systems occupy 4Mha. Improved pastures are thus a major asset in Brazil not only for the beef production chain but also for the dairy industry.


Lima, Antônio Agostinho/Oliveira, Francisco Nelsieudes/Aquino, Antônio Renes Lins: Solos e Aptidão Agrícola das Terras do Estado do Tocantins, in: Embrapa Agroindustria, Documento 31, 2000.

Short Summary: An abundant analysis detailing the soil conditions in Tocantins, including a taxonomy, general geographic and pluviometric conditions, as well as recommendations for agricultural use. The text focusses on different soil types (like argia or latossol) and derives the most appropriate cultivating methods.


Lobato, J.F.B. et altera: Brazilian beef produced on pastures: Sustainable and healthy, in: Meat Science 98 (2014) p. 336–345

Short Summary (Abstract): With a herd of 209 million cattle, Brazilian beef production estimate for 2023 is 10,935 million tons, representing an increase of 28.9% and accounting for 20% of the world trade. Beef cattle production is constantly evolving; however, there are extremes, ranging from simple existing farm ranges to intensive forage systems, strategic supplementation, updated health and genetic improvement programs for the production of quality beef. This modern production is based on scientific research carried out at universities and other research institutions. A new generation of professionals with multidisciplinary knowledge and a holistic vision of the productive chain proposed management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the production of grass-fed beef cattle, whose meat has high omega-3 and CLA contents. Age at slaughter of steers and of heifers at first mating, significant increases in the ratio calves/100 cows, adequate traceability for pastoral systems with hundreds or thousands of animals per farm and a more intense transference of technology are required.


Lopes, Mauricio Antonio: Agricultural Innovation and Challenges for Promotion of Knowledge and Information Flows in Agrifood Systems in Brazil, Brazilian Agricultural Research 2011

Short Summary: A presentation for the OECD Conference on Agricultural Knowledge Systems, focussing on innovative measures in Brazil´s rapidly growing agriculture.


Oliveira, Fábio Alvares/Sfredo, Gedi Jorge/Caso, César/Klepker, Dirceu: Fertilidade do solo e nutrição da soja, in: Circular Técnica, Londrina 2007

Short Summary: The analysis provides a fertility study of Brazilian soils, focusses on a cientific approach for measuring the fertility in general, the acidity in specific and recommends approaches in order to correct for over-acidity of soils.


Scot Consulting: Soil Overview Brazil, 8th edition 2012

Short Summary: This overview presents an encompassing synopsis of the geographic and pluviometry conditions of rural areas in all Brazilian states. It contains actual data (2012) with abundant statistics regarding price developments, production and productivity patterns etc. The analysis gives a preliminary impression of Brazil´s agricultural potential.


Taliarine, Adriana Botelho 2015: A importância da Gestão no Agronegócio Brasileiro, in: Revista Perspectiva em Gestão & Tecnologia, Vol. 4 No. 8

Short Summary: The study sheds light on the significance of planning and controlling in the agricultural sector in Brazil. The author critizices that, while the contribution of agriculture in Brazil to the PIB is immense, the degree of efficient planning and controlling is less developed than in other parts of the economy. Thus, she emphasized the importance of improving the administrative and financial capabilities of a sustainable agriculture.

Further Reading/Extending Literature:

Hungria, M./Campo, R.J./Mendes, I.: Fixação biológica do nitrogênio na cultura de soja, Londrina, Embrapa Soja, 2001 (Circular Técnica, 35)

Short Summary: Investments into the agricultural sector, agribusinesses and farms in Brazil premise ample knowledge about the chemical and geological conditions present in the various regions of Brazil. The current study focusses on the cultivation of soy, with the authors advocating a new “technology”, that is a symbiosis between a bacterium and nitrogenium to provide for sustainable growth of soy, without exhausting natural resources.


Raij, B. Van: Fertilidade do solo e adubação, São Paulo, Agronômica CERES/Potafos, 1991

Short Summary: The study, authored by the renowned agronomist Bernardo van Raij, provides an overview over the conditions of the soil in different regions of Brazil, parting from the geological conditions of the soils, to the interactions between soil and nutrients to methods of increasing soil fertility. A highly recommended study for those aiming at investing into crop-planting in Brazil.

 

Real Estate Purchase Regulations/Investment and Economic Studies

Barbosa, Denis Borges 2016: Ganho de Capital na Alienação de Imóvel (por Pessoa Física), Denis Borges Barbosa Advocates, Rio de Janeiro

Short Summary: The paper considers the sale of properties in the case of Brazilian residents (Nationals and Foreigners) and the related capital gains and its taxation. The Brazilian legislation provides for  annual reduction percentages for properties acquired up to 31 December 1988. These percentages should be deducted from the capital gain earned due to the sale of the property.


Brass, Kevin 2018: House Hunting in Brazil, in New York Times, 01.March, 2018

Short Summary: News Paper article focussing on the current real estate situation in Brazil, in which the author of this homepage gave an interview about general economic traits in the beginning of 2018.


Cardoso Junior, Ailton/Guerra, Rodrigo Ribeira 2003: Parecer referente à aquisição de Propriedade Rural por Estrangeiro e criação de Pessoa Jurídica Nacional

Short Summary: The juridical report by Cardoso Junior & Guerra provides a general evaluation of the possibilities of acquiring rural properties in Brazil, focussing on particular on the legal status-quo situation as well as the requirements/necessities.

Further Statistical Information about Rural Properties in Brazil here.


KPMG Brazil, 2014: Data Consolidation of the Private Equity and Venture Capital Industry in Brazil.

Short Summary: The report from KPMG provides a systemic base, covering the diversity and complexity of domestic and international structures and vehicles, which operate in long-term investment categories in Brazil. It provides for a very good overview, however with a slight pro-KPMG bias in its assessments.


Matos, Thiago Oliveira de 2017: A expansão do mercado imobiliário no Brasil: Um paralelo entre a evolução dos preços no mercado
brasileiro e a bolha imobiliária norte-americana, Department of Economic Sciences, PUC-Rio de Janeiro

Short Summary: The monography, published at PUC Rio de Janeiro, focusses on a comparative analysis of the real estate markets in the United States of America and Brazil. The author distinguishes between both country´s different histories, that led to different real estate market dynamics, but also credit policies. The author draws also a comparison between Brazil´s and the US real estate bubble, which in the United states resultated in quicker “corrective” market mechanisms, leading to a relatively short-term equilibrium between supply and demand. However, in Brazil this adaptation has taken considerably longer, resulting in a gap between supply and demand. This gap is now gradually being closed and the real estate market is returning to an equilibrium state.


OECD Economic Outlook Brazil, February 2018

Short Summary: The current OECD Report about the Economic Perspectives of Brazil focusses strongly on three variables, tied to three policy recommendations: Sustaining inclusive growth with further significant reforms, Stronger investment and productivity are key for future growth, Brazil can seize greater benefits from greater global and regional. While highlighting these as key targets of future growths, the report shows that Brazil is improving rapidly on all key economic figures, highlighting a low inflation, low interest rates and resuming economic growht.


Roberts, Nina 2014: House Hunting in Brazil, in New York Times Nov. 21, 2012

Short Summary: The News Paper Article sheds light on the modalities of property purchase in Brazil as well as some economic parameters. It also presents an exemplary upscale property in the rural regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The author of this webpage has been interviewed for this article.


Ronquim, Ademar Filho/Aldair, Ramos Rios 2014: Aquisição da Propriedade Imobiliária no Brasil por Estrangeiros, in: Revista de Direitos Sociais e Políticas Públicas (UNIFAFIBE)

Short Summary: The paper aims to present the conditions imposed on the foreigner for the acquisition of real estate property in Brazil. Considering the social changes and economic factors that have occurred in the last decades that have led to the growth of of urban and rural properties by foreigners in the country, it is being considered imperative to analyze the regulations determining the purchase of real estate in Brazil.

World Bank, 2012: World Bank Group Support to Public-Private Partnerships: Lessons from Experience in Client Countries, fy02–12

Short Summary: As the title suggests, the report highlights the ever-increasing role and importance of guarantees in PPP Financing. While traditional bank guarantees are increasingly rejected due to high capital costs, the report examines the use of alternative forms of guarantees like maintenance and performance bonds.


 

Renewable Energies: Eolic, Photovoltaic and Biomass

Cezar de Souza, Climaco/Hahn, Andreas 2015: Biomass Gasifiers: a sustainable and fair new future energy – originating in Brazil

Cezar de Souza, Climaco: Energias Solar mais Eólica, Etanol/biodiesel e Biomassa nos libertarão do petróleo e das hidro?

Short Summary: As the title implies, the analysis scrutinizes the current status quo of renewable energies in Brazil and follows the question whether photovoltaic and wind energies serve as sustainable substitutes to the traditional fossil energy carriers. It also provides a glimpse on new technologies and patents developed in the area.


Cezar de Souza, Climaco/Hahn, Andreas 2014: Solar Energy in Brazil – Opportunities in the Solar Energy Market

Short Summary: The text sheds light on the advantages of Brazil´s possible autarchy in terms of solar energy generation and the production of panels and equipment. It serves to promote Brazil as eminent site for solar energy.


IRENA, International Renewable Energy Agency: Renewable Energy Policy Brief Brazil, June 2015

Short Summary: Encompassing analysis of the Brazilian energy sector, including economic variables and political switch stands, based on the Ten Years Energy Expansion Plans. The article provides an overview of the market situation and the legislative process leading to a strengthening of the Brazilian solar, wind and biomass-sector.


Luomi, Mari: Sustainable Energy in Brazil: Reversing Past Achievements or Realizing Future Potential, in: The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2014.

Short Summary: An alternative evaluation of the Brazilian renewable energies situation, focussing on Brazil´s advances and efforts in promoting wind, solar and biomass energy. The author points a critical light on some failures and reversals, however hints to the fact that the Brazilian government remains strongly committed to renewable energy, by putting into reality a growing number of auctions, granting fiscal incentives etc. She concluded the analysis with Policy Recommendations that take into account the heightened demand for energy in Brazil in the years to come.


Tolmasquim, Mauricio: Energia Renovável: Hidráulica, Biomassa, Eólica, Solar, Oceanica; EPE – Empresa de Pesquisa Energética 2016.

Short Summary: The purpose of this excellent book is to give a glimpse on Brazil´s usage of alternative energies (hydraulic, biomass, solar, wind), embedded in an international scenario of strengthening sustainable energies. It evaluates how well Brazil managed to cope so far with the demands of these energies and which challenges still lay ahead.



Websites and Databanks

BNDES – Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento (National Development Bank): The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) is the main financing agent for development in Brazil. Since its foundation, in 1952, the BNDES has played a fundamental role in stimulating the expansion of industry and infrastructure in the country. Over the course of the Bank’s history, its operations have evolved in accordance with the Brazilian socio-economic challenges, and now they include support for exports, technological innovation, sustainable socio-environmental development and the modernization of public administration. The Bank offers several financial support mechanisms to Brazilian companies of all sizes as well as public administration entities, enabling investments in all economic sectors. In any supported undertaking, from the analysis phase up to the monitoring, the BNDES emphasizes three factors it considers strategic: innovation, local development and socio-environmental development.

CNC – Confederação Nacional do Comércio de Bens, Serviços e Turismo (The National Confederation of Commerce, Services and Tourism): It is a trade union organization reuniting several federal and regional union councils, providing ample information about the labour market and regularly publishing ample information about economic growth, the labour market as well as educational and cultural developments in Brazil.

CRECI – Conselho Nacional de Corretores de Imóveis (National Realtor´s Council): The CRECI is the umbrella organization of Brazilian realtors, representing their interests and at the same time providing a regulatory quase-legislative framework which is binding for the realtor´s profession. Each state has its legal representation, as for example the CRECISP.

FGV – Fundação Getulio Vargas: The FGV is a Brazilian higher education institution founded on December 20, 1944. FGV produces a large amount of academic research. The subjects cover macro and micro-economics, finance, business, decision-making, law, health, welfare, poverty and unemployment, pollution, and sustainable development. The foundation also maintains research programs in the fields of History, Social Sciences, Education, Justice, Citizenship, and Politics. FGV also executes projects at the request of the public sector, private enterprise and international agencies such as the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). One of the main economic variables published by the FGV is the IPCA (Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor – Amplo), the National Consumer Price Index – one of the two Inflation Indicators in Brazil. The updated inflation values (IPCA) can be verified here: http://www.calculador.com.br/tabela/indice/IPCA

IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística: The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. IBGE performs a decennial national census; questionnaires account for information such as age, household income, literacy, education, occupation and hygiene levels. It is the largest statistical instutition in Brazil.

INCRA – Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária (National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform): The INCRA, with seat in Brasilia (Federal District), is a Brazilian autonomous regulatory agency, responsible for land reforms and agrarian administration. Its objective is to implement models compatible with the potentialities and biomes of each region of the country and to foster the spatial integration of projects. Another important task is the implementation of the existing environmental guidelines, the recovery of the infrastructure and the sustainable development of the more than eight thousand settlements in the country.

IPEA – Institutio de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Institute for Applied Economic Research):  The IPEA is a Brazilian government-led research organization dedicated to generation of macroeconomical, sectorial and thematic studies in order to base government planning and policy making. It was founded in 1964 and provides ample information about Brazil´s macroeconomic state. Connected to the IPEA is the IPEADatabank with access to  macroeconomic, regional and social data. It is the largest databank in Brazil.